Contextual Inquiry-Group:Beta Bears

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Team Members and Contributions

  • Sally Ahn : Visited Ironworks and outdoor climbing sites to interview climbers A-F and some expert climbers. Drew the UI storyboard. Wrote Problem Overview. Also helped write Target Users, Interview Descriptions, and Task Analysis.
  • Bryan Trinh :Visited Ironworks and outdoor climbing sites to interview climbers A-F and some expert climbers. Helped draw the UI storyboard. Wrote Target Users. Also helped write task analysis and interview descriptions.
  • Mikhail (Misha) Shashkov : UI design, task analysis questions, and overall write-up clean-up; also interviewed an expert climber (daily visitor of Iron-Works) , whose interview we didn't place here because he was not part of the target user group.
  • Bobby : Visit Ironworks and interview climbers A-F. Wrote part of the Target Users and Design rationale.

All members contributed to the UI design and most parts of the write up.

Target Users

Before doing our interviews our target group was climbers in Berkeley, but after interviewing several rock climbers, both indoors and outdoors, we saw that there was a big difference in the way beginning rock climbers and more advanced rock climbers approached bouldering problems. The more advanced rock climbers tend to visualize efficient body positions before attempting the problem whereas the beginning rock climbers solve problems one hold at a time, often in very inefficient body positions that waste much needed strength. At this point we began considering changing our target group to beginners. And after interviewing some expert climbers, who expressed less enthusiasm for an iPhone application than the beginning climber because they themselves did not feel the need for relying on technology while enjoying the sport, "we chose to focus our application on helping beginning climbers improve performance."

Amongst beginners, we tried to vary our interviews so as to find users who represented different backgrounds and goals: some came as families to climb for leisure, some came alone and focused on improving their skills, and some came with friends for both reasons of leisure and improvement.

We interviewed three pairs of users at Ironworks (indoor) and Indian Rock (outdoor) and got a chance to observe how they interact while climbing:

1. Climbers A & B: Married couple with a baby (Ironworks)

Rationale: They represent climbers who climb for leisure and social aspects.
Background: They are wife and husband with a baby. They are in their 30's and visits the gym with family and friends. The wife (climber A) is the more experienced climber who introduced rock climbing to her husband (climber B), but they both consider themselves to be beginners. They like to visit different gyms, including ones in San Francisco and Oakland. However, having a baby prevents them from going to the gym as often as they would like.
Likes: They enjoy the problem-solving aspect of rock climbing as well as the physical fitness they can gain from the sport. They like to visit various climbing gyms, including the ones in San Francisco and Oakland. They enjoy going rockclimbing with friends as well. While at the gym, they try to do about 4 climbs per visit, where the first is an easy climb for a warm-up, the third is the most difficult climb to complete, and the last is a slightly easier climb so that they could end with a good note.
Dislikes: They do not like to stretch before climbing, prefering to use easier climbing problems as the warm-ups. The wife does not like to pre-plan any of her moves, but the husband prefers to visualize at least the first couple of moves before attempting a particular climbing problem. However, even the husband does not plan more than two or three moves for a typical climb.
Priorities: Time is valuable to them, especially now that they have a baby to watch, so they try fit in as many climbs as possible (taking turns at watching the baby) while they are at the gym. They enjoy rock climbing with friends, and this makes them want to become better climbers so that they could widen the choices of climbing trips that they could join.

2. Climbers C & D: Two male students at the gym (Ironworks)

Rationale: These students represent individuals who climb to improve their skills.
Background: The first climber (climber C) was a complete beginner; this was only his 3rd time climbing. Climber D was a more experienced climber who had been climbing for over 2 years. They had both come to the gym alone, but when climber C started to struggle while agreeing to our request that he showed us how he would attempt a typical climb, climber D offered his help by showing him how he was approaching the problem with a wrong pose.
Likes: Climber C likes rock climbing because it provides both physical and mental challenges. He said that although he was a "pretty strong guy" (we saw that he was physically fit), rock climbing required much more than just strength. It requires knowing how to control one's mind to overcome the fear of letting go of a hold to proceed to the next, as well as focusing on the problem that needs to be solved. Climber D agreed with this, saying that these aspects were also what had drawn him into the sport of rock climbing.
Dislikes: Climber C admitted that there were times when a certain problem would stump him, and he would just try the same move repeatedly and fall off every time until someone with more experience finally showed him the proper move to perform. Climber D had done precisely this during our interview. Both climbers agreed that this was the common way beginning rock climbers learned; they learned from watching others climb. Climber B seemed to the idea of an iPhone application that might help him to visualize solutions for problems that were troubling him. Climber C, on the other hand, seemed unsure how an iPhone might provide the necessary help, since it would require seeing the right move done by another person.
Priorities: As mentioned before, these two climbers had come to the gym by themselves for the purpose of improving their skills. Thus, their priorities are learning the proper technique and getting a lot of practice while they are at the gym.
This pair of climbers were on opposite ends of the skill spectrum and we were able to see this in their different climbing styles.

3. Climbers E & F: Two male students (Indian Rock)

Rationale: These students represent two beginner friends who go to both indoor and outdoor climbing locations every once in a while; approximately once a month.
Background: These 2 climbers climb on their free time every now and then. They stated that they do not climb frequently enough to make steady progress and consider themselves to be at the beginner level. They also do not have the advantage of knowing an expert climber to instruct them on different positions and move sequences to try.
Likes/Dislikes: When we brought up the idea of an iPhone application that would help them figure out the different problems at Indian rock they were very enthused to give it a try. One of the students had an iPhone and was very excited to try our application after we create it. They stated that the only way they discovered new climbs was to either watch others climb first or ask others for tips as they are climbing.
Priorities: These climbers enjoy the fun and social aspects of climbing. They cared less about getting better at climbing than just going out and having fun in nature.

Problem and Solution Overview

Rock climbing is a sport that requires physical strength, mental focus, and technique. These demands make rock climbing a relatively difficult sport for first-time climbers and beginners. Often, beginners rely on guidance from more experienced climbers to overcome these challenges. Our application will facilitate the learning process for novice climbers by providing constant and immediate access to such guidance. In short, it will be a personal guide, trainer, and log geared specifically to address the roadblocks beginners face in rock climbing.

Contextual Inquiry - Interview Descriptions

Process: During the interviews, we tried to allow the climber to describe their climbing experience as freely as possible. However, we also made sure to mention 3 key points that we considered important: 1.) their climbing history (background), 2.) how they approached each climb (climbing process), and 3.) aspects of rock climbing they enjoyed the most (enjoyment). The first point would help us to refine our target group and the second and third points would help us to identify the user needs our application should address and the aspects of rock climbing we should not diminish. We prepared a set of questions to refer to as needed during the interview, which can be viewed here: Interview Questions.

Environment: We decided to visit Ironworks, a popular rock climbing gym in Berkeley, and several outdoor climbing sites, such as Indian Rock, to interview real climbers. This allowed us to observe our potential users perform the task of climbing firsthand, and this helped us to identify the types of challenges they would encounter.

Common tasks and themes:

  • Climbing solutions are hard for beginners to visualize
  • Many climbers enjoy the problem-solving aspect of rock climbing
  • Different climbers approach climbs differently (some like to pre-plan, others prefer to "feel as they go")
  • Climbers like to analyze and learn from their previous climbs

After witnessing climber C's climbing attempt during interview #2, we realized that visualizing the solution was a difficulty that novice climbers often encountered. From interview #1, we learned that figuring out the correct move was the problem-solving aspect of rock climbing that climbers really enjoyed. However, we saw that without the repertoire of climbing moves accumulated through experience, it is difficult for beginners to even imagine the moves to try out at all. One common occurrence we noticed while we were at the gym was that beginners often relied on nearby experienced climbers to notice their struggles and show them the solutions. This discrepancy between complete beginners and climbers with some experience--the need for guidance for solving a set of holds--was a problem we wanted to address.

Interview #1: Married couple at Ironworks (Climbers A & B)

For our first interview, we approached a couple who were taking a break from climbing. We learned that both the husband and wife were beginners but the wife had been climbing for longer. They had been fairly active climbers before, but having a baby has significantly reduced the amount of time they can spare for rock climbing.

When asked about how they approached the climbing process, the husband said that for each new climb, he would plan one or two moves, but not much more ahead than that. When faced a difficult set of holds, he would simply try different moves until he found one that works. As for the wife, she said that she did not plan anything before attempting to climb at all. She said that many of her climbing friends did like to visualize the set of moves before starting to climb, but that did not align with her style. She prefers to figure things out as she climbs. Both of them described their typical day at the gym as consisting of 4 climbs, where the first one is a fairly easy climb, the third is the most difficult climb, and the fourth is a medium to easy climb.

Both the husband and wife answered that they enjoy rock climbing for the problem-solving aspect, social outings with friends, and the reward of improving their physical fitness.

Interview #2: Two male students at Ironworks (Climbers C & D: )

Our second interview consisted of two climbers who had come to the gym alone. One climber (climber C) was a complete beginner. He was in his twenties, and this was his third time climbing. The other climber (climber D) was a Cal student who had been climbing for 2 years.

During this interview, we asked climber C to demonstrate how he would attempt a particular climb. In doing so, he immediately ran into a problem: he could not visualize the correct way to position himself for the specific start hold. Therefore, he repeatedly fell off the wall because he could not maintain his balance while transitioning to the next move. After he failed several times, climber D showed him what he was doing wrong. After seeing climber D's example, which involved a completely different body position for the same start hold, climber C was able to proceed to the next hold.

Both climbers stated that they like rock climbing for the physical challenge and exercise in mental control (i.e. overcoming fear, solving a problem) it provides. Climber C also stated that rock climbers are all nice people who readily help each other meet their climbing goals, and he enjoys the sense of comraderie he shares with other climbers.

Interview #3: Two male students at Indian Rock (Climbers E & F)

This interview took place at an outdoor climbing site called Indian Rock. Both climbers were Cal students and this was their first time climbing outdoors. Although they had been climbing at indoor gyms before, they said that they did not climb consistently to make rapid progress.

During the interview, we asked them whether outdoor climbing was different from indoor climbing. They answered that they were two completely different experiences. We asked what they thought about an iPhone application that might help rock climbers. One of them was an iPhone user already, and was excited by the idea. They suggested a feature that might help them locate other rock climbing sites near the one they were at, because they knew there were other sites that were less well-known than Indian Rock.

These two climbers stated that they enjoyed rock climbing as a casual sport that they could enjoy with friends. They stated that the problem-solving aspect was fun, but if an application existed that could help them find the solutions to troubling problems, they would definitely be interesting in acquiring it.

Task Analysis Questions

1) Who is going to use the system?
Beginning Rock climbers.
This group includes a wide spectrum of users ranging from teenagers to the elderly. Most, however, seem to fall under college student/middle-aged (i.e. married couples) age group. Presumably, these rock climbers own an iPhone and are familiar with the usage of an iPhone application.
2) What tasks do they now perform?
Solve climbing problems: Beginning users take a look at the start hold then jump right in and attempt to climb. Often times, they fall off because the position they tried first was wrong, and so they could not maintain their balance while transitioning to the next hold. When such climbers try but fail to find the correct move many times, more experienced climbers who are nearby would offer advice ("beta") or just show them the proper move. Such advice and guidance seems to be a crucial aspect of how rock climbers learn and improve. Build physical strength and flexibility: Experienced climbers testify that rock climbing requires a great deal of strength

3) What tasks are desired?
Solve climbing problems: Beginning climbers rely heavily on the guidance of nearby experienced climbers. In situations where such guidance expert climbers are unavailable, the beginning climber may struggle alone on a single problem and not be able to make progress. Such occasions may be frustrating and discouraging for beginning climbers. We want our application to ensure constant and reliable access to the guidance they may need at all times. Build physical strength and flexibility: Rock climbing requires specific physical strengths that beginning climbers often lack. They realize that they need to improve their fitness in order to achieve a certain move or climb, but they do not always know what is the best workout for doing this. After a climb they want to analyze their last attempt Our interview with wife -> this is not always the case, but she attests that many of her climbing friends do this. Before the climb they wish to visualize themselves solving the problem They want to increase their ability.

4) How are the tasks learned?
All of the tasks (except for the assist my climb) are simple look-up UIs and thus have no learning curve, that hasn't already been taught from using a table of contents in a book, or a search bar on a computer. As for the climbing assistance, a pop-up instruction screen is provided (along with a bar with short instructions that persists during the camera and annotation process). We believe the UI to be intuitive and be usable without the presence of instructions after an initial use and some fiddling. This is the only functionality which has a learning curve but we believe to be very minimal (see the sketch board for further evidence).

5) Where are the tasks performed?
There are two locations where the user will want to perform the tasks. Primarily, the user will want to use the climbing advice functionality while at the gym during his/her downtime between attempts at a climb. Also while at the gym, they will want to use the terminology look up if they encounter some sign, overhear advice, or ask an expert for help but are ashamed to ask for definitions of jargon. Also, they may use the log here after a climb (or wait until they get home to report their progress) The second location is at home, or anywhere else the user has time to reflect on their climbs or plan what they will do when they get to the gym/climb. Here they may want to use the location finder functionality to find a new place to climb or to get directions to the gym, or they may want to look up their progress in the log, so they can plan out what they will do at the gym.
6) What's the relationship between user & data?
Half of data is a direct reflection of the user's achievements and progress (log). While the other half is the equivalent of expert knowledge and advice that the user wishes to "ask" us for. This includes, suggested moves, suggested workouts, where to climb, and what words mean. This realization encouraged us to use a "student-teacher" metaphor in the design of our UI and buttons (for example, "Assist my Climb", "Find places to climb").
7) What other tools does the user have?
Whilst at the gym, the user really has no tools other than other human beings. There is no practicality in bringing a computer, and bringing a big climbing guide book to the gym is just socially awkward for most users. Likewise, if the user is going alone and is too shy to ask a stranger for climbing advice, they have no other options other than our app. Other functionality, such as keeping a log, is only replaceable by the slow pencil and paper. Thus overall, we believe there is little alternatives to our app while at the gym.
8) How do users communicate with each other?
This is basically irrelevant in the context of our App. Our App's primary role is to replace the advice that a friend or co-climber can provide, thus our users communicate with the app when they have no one else to communicate with.
9) How often are the tasks performed?
The key functionalities ("the assist my climb" functionalities) could be performed at each downtime between unsuccessful climbs (every 10 minutes or so while at the location). The workout advisor would be accessed a few times while at the location to get an idea for what to do while climbing, but the advice/exercise will be simple enough to not need to be re-referenced by opening the iPod again.

The other functionalities (dictionary and location finder) are used on a "as-needed" basis. Likewise, the use of the dictionary may deteriorate with time as the beginner becomes more knowledgable. The same goes for the location finder, as users will remember how to get to a gym or find a favorite gym. However, it will still maintain its usefullness as the user wants to expand their horizons and find new places to climb (this especially applies to outdoor climbers).

10) What are the time constraints on the tasks?
Obviously users will not want to spend the majority time at the gym clicking on an iPod when they came to climb and get exercise. However, we observed that climbing is, as one interviewee described it, a "sitting" sport. Which means that there is a significant amount downtime (5-10 minutes) where climbers sit and talk and then attempt to climb for a few minutes (less than a minute for beginners). This time slot is a perfect constraint and is easily met with our app which is beginner oriented and makes logging, and asking for advice or workouts as short as 4 taps plus some short time to enter very basic data for the log (location, difficulty) and some reading time to read a short workout from the muscle planner. The climbing advice functionality is perhaps the most time consuming, but with our simple interface of picture + quick, intuitive motions to denote holds (see sketchs below) this process is made as innocuous and short as possible.
11) What happens when things go wrong?
The only functionality of our app that could "go wrong" would be for the climbing advisor to suggest incorrect moves due to an inaccurate algorithm. Because of this, we take the same approach that expert climbers give when giving "beta (advice), they suggest a number of moves to try rather than a "perfect" solution, which is often illusive because there are different climbing styles and thus multiple solutions. For a beginner, the key is to find your style; likewise, our advisor will suggest multiple moves to reduce the "error" of providing a limited number of improper moves. The other functionalities are primarily data storage/retrieval and do not utilize any algorithms and thus are debuggable pre-launch, so there should be nothing "going wrong" with any serious consequences.

Analysis of Tasks


1.) Terminology lookup: It will include the terminology of climbing. Also, we will introduce different grading system of climbing and any other climbing knowledge that can presented in "quick fact" format.

We deemed this an easy task because the user has to make one click on the dictionary from the menu before being prompted with a place to enter their term or scroll to find it (this gives an immediate sense of having the solution close). One more click returns the desired information and the interaction is over.

2.) Find nearby climbing sites: It locates the nearby climbing sites through GPS and map. Also, users can filter out the type of rock climbing sites that they want. For instance, rock climbing gym or outdoors climbing site.

We deemed this an easy task because the user only has to make one click on the "find climbs" button from the menu before being given immediate information in the form of a map of Berkeley with little symbols on climbing locations (think Google Maps). Additional functionality simply consists of buttons that reduce or greaten the amount of information on the map.


3.) Log: It keeps the data of the users' climbing experiences. Primarily this will be used by users to log how many routes of a particular difficulty they have succeeded on (thus our main screen for this functionality; see below). Also, users can store photos and input notes for each climbing experience or they can choose to share to their climbing experience with the photos and notes.

We deemed this a moderate task because there is not a particularly "intuitive" way to arrange this more complicated UI. Nonetheless, anything you would want to do, view V0 climbs, send pictures, edit data, add notes, all have buttons for that functionality only on the views for which that functionality makes sense in the heirarchy of the greater functionality as a log (see our sketch if clarification is needed).

4.) Improve Performance: It provides the exercises and practices to improve the max difficulty level you can climb.

We deemed this a moderate task because there is more information to process here before the user reaches the desired final page (a description of a workout or exercise game). Likewise, the UI necessarily becomes a bit more cluttered and thus requires more time to process before an interaction can be made.


5.) Body configuration helper ("Assist My Climb"): Given a camera image of the climb, marked up by the user with foot and hand holds of interest, the user will be shown descriptions(and optional video) of certain moves they may want to try to succesfully move along the segement they have demarcated.

We deemed this as a difficult task because there is a requirement to read instructions on just exactly why there is now a camera popping up, what you should do with it, and how to properly denote foot and hand holds and their orientations on the following view.

This task will have the largest learning curve, but we believe our UI (see below) is easy enough to learn and makes intuitive sense on how to denote the orientation of holds that the user should not need to read the instructions more than once, and will learn how to use the functionality after a first attempt.

6.) Selecting optimal set of moves for a route, given the user's goals/focus: Given input from the user (or alternately, data that is pulled from the log) we can tailor a particular way to climb a route so that the user trains the muscles or techniques they wish to. This assists the beginner from just taking the "easy way out" of a climb by climbing the way they are comfortable with and with techniques they have already begun to master.

We deemed this as a difficult task because it may not be obvious to a first-time user how to provide input to this functionality and if this input conflicts with log input or whether it even uses it at all. These issues will of course be addresses with instruction pop-up dialogs that can be set to "don't show this again". Whatever the final design, there will ultimately be a learning-curve that makes the UI "difficult" to use for a first-time user, hence our designation as difficult.

Interface Design

Description of the Different Functionalities and Their UI

The Assist My Climber provides the user with a way to input the current problem that he or she is working on. This is done by first taking a picture of a specific hold configuration and secondly by marking them by clicking on the holds and indicating the direction the hold is facing. There are two important data acquisition phases that need to be entered correctly for the algorithm that suggests climbing positions to work correctly. During the picture taking phase, the inclination of the iPhone is recorded. During the hold input phase the user is instructed to touch down on the hold location and drag in the direction in which a hand would pull on the hold. The direction is important in order to figure out the optimal position. After the user clicks done, the a list of best positions is suggested.
The Selecting Optimal set moves functionality is an extention to the optimal position function. By taking data from training logs and previously completed climbs, the program will suggest move sets that best suit the user instead of just producing the best position. For instance the application may suggest that the user climb more statically and flexibly instead of dynamically and powerfully.

The Workout Improvement UI focuses on the goals of the specific user. First the user will pick a climbing guide that is suited for his or her level. Based on the individuals climbing level, the interface suggests the best workout plan for the individual. A list of all of the workouts is also made available for the users to peruse if they wish. After a certain training guide is clicked, a description and a video of how the exercise should be done is shown.
,br> For the terminology interface, it basically has two categories. One is movement searching, the other is a general terminology search. For the general terminology search, the app sorts the list in alphabetical order. And user can also search for a specific keyword by typing in. The explanation of the terminology will be displayed below. Pressing on the tab to change to the movement terminology, we understand that the users might not know the terms before hand as they are all new to rock climbing. So we decide to have a picture of what the movement looks like when the user clicks on a specific move. Therefore, the users will have a better picture determining whether this is the movement they want to look up. Pressing on the pictures will lead the user to a more detailed pictures and description about the move.

GPS location view allows the user to choose two views of looking at the map. One is contour view, the other is just the normal google map. On the map, we indicate your position by a big dot on the map and indicate the nearby climbing sites by lollipops. The nearer climbing site the larger the lollipop will be. It will easier for the users the recognize which location is the closest to them. In addition, the app will list out three of the closest climb sites with their names and their difficulties. After the user chooses a climbing site, the view will zoom in and show the route from the user's current location to the destination. Arriving at the climbing site, the app will display the picture of the climb site with marked footholds and handholds. Below, there will also be notes that user might have inputed since their last experience to this particular climbing site.

For the climbing log, we first have a list of difficulties and a bar graph next to them so the user can get a feel for what difficulties they have mastered (see first log image). After the user clicks on a specific difficulty, the user sees locations and routes (at the location) for the previously selected difficulty. Icons next to these routes quickly give information as to the general nature of the climb (overhang, vertical, etc..). Clicking on a route then gives you specific information as to whether you have completed it (and at what date), reiterates the difficulty, allows you view photos for the route (most useful for outdoor climbers) but also stores previous photos you have taken of trouble spots (for review), and then a personal notes field. We chose to include this fundamental information to orient the app towards beginners (who really don't need to know much more than what we present). As for editing, there is an edit button in the top-right corner that takes you to an equivalent page just with all the fields editable.

Scenario 1

Tianyu has recently been introduced to the sport of rock climbing by her rock climbing expert friend, Kathryn. Over the past couple of weeks, she has been going to Ironworks, an indoor rock climbing gym in Berkeley and has been learning various climbing moves from Kathryn. This week, however, Kathryn has caught a bad cold, so Tianyu is alone at Ironworks. She attempts to climb a route...

Scenario 1 Sketchboard

Scenario 2

Bill has recently started rock climbing. He enjoys the challenge of rock climbing, but he is also a busy dad and so, he cannot climb as often as he would like. This makes it difficult for him to keep track of his climbing attempts, favorite routes and gyms, and his progress. This weekend, he finally has some time to go to the gym, and he would like to tackle the route that had been troubling him for the past month. He can't immediately recall which gym that route was at, so he pulls out his iPhone goes to his training log to see the climbing routes that he has not completed yet. He remembers the level of the climb it was and thus can quickly navigate to the climb he was last attempting. He finds the spot of the gym the climb is located at and jumps back on.

Scenario 3

Lita is a new climber and this is only her second time at the gym. She is trying to climb a route, and after several failures, realizes that she just doesn't have the strength that the necessary moves requires. She is not sure which muscles are most used for these moves, and so she is not sure how she should be tailoring her workouts. Luckily, she has <name of our app> on her iPhone, and can immediately search for the proper workouts tailored specifically for the transitional move that is giving her trouble. She clicks on the workout advisor from the menu, and given her climbing log data the advisor automatically suggests workout plans for her current difficulty skill. All she has to do is click on them and is immediately presented with a short, succinct description of a workout or game she can play to hone techniques and moves for her difficulty level.

Assist My Climb UI

See storyboard (above)

Climb Log UI

Location Finder UI

Dictionary/Terminology UI

Workout Advisor UI

Analysis of Approach

The key task that separates our application from existing rock climbing applications is the "Assist My Climb" functionality. This feature takes advantage of many affordances provided by the iPhone: the touch screen, camera, and accelerometer. Our other tasks, while they are important for rock climbers, reflect simple interfaces. Therefore, we will focus our analysis on our "Assist My Climb" feature. This feature will help rock climbers discover the best moves for a particular hold configuration. The UI functions of this feature requires that the user takes a picture of a climbing route and mark the climbing holds for the algorithm to figure out what is the best possible move. The application needs to collect data on the angle of the climbing surface and store in the position of the holds. Collecting the angle of the wall happens automatically when the user takes the picture of the climbing wall. When people take pictures it is natural for them to point the camera so that it faces the subject directly. Thus by knowning the angle the iphone is facing, we will know the angle of the wall. To help the user out we also prompt him to follow these tasks. Marking the climbing hold should also feel very natural to the users. The hold location and the direction that is most positive needs to be marked. The user inputs this by clicking on the location of the hold, dragging in the direction that the hold would be pulled, and releasing when the arrow points in the right direction. The motion of dragging the finger in the direction pulling will feel natural to users because that is what they will do when pulling on the holds.

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